Antibody production and vaccination

Topic 11.1

Essential idea: Immunity is based on recognition of self and destruction of foreign material.


What are the different parts of the immume system?

Defense provided by the immune system is based on the ability of certain cells to respond and eliminate certain foreign (non-self) substances and then remember them in case of future infection. The immune system is effective against bacteria, viruses (inside and outside of host cells) as well as parasitic protozoa, fungi and worms. It is also involved in allergic responses, defense against cancer and the rejection of transplanted tissue.

Immune system overview

11.1.U1 Every organism has unique molecules on the surface of itself

Unique molecules found on cell surfaces

11.1.U2 Pathogens can be species-specific although others can cross species barriers

Species specific diseases

11.1.U3 B lymphocytes are activated by T lymphocytes in mammals

Diagram of how B cells are activated by helper T cells

11.1.U4 Activated B cells multiply to form clones of plasma cells and memory cells

B cell production of plasma cells and memory cells

11.1.U5 Plasma cells secrete antibodiess

Antibody production by plasma cells diagram

11.1.U6 Antibodies aid in the destruction of pathogens

Clonal selection theory diagram

11.1.U7 White cells release histamine in response to allergens

Release of histamines by white blood cells

11.1.U8 Histamines cause allergic symptoms

Symptoms of an allergic reaction

11.1.U9 Immunity depends upon the persistence of memory cells

Memory cells and persistence

11.1.U10 Vaccines contain antigens that trigger immunity but do not cause the disease

Types of vaccines

11.1.U11 Fusion of a tumor cell with an antibody-producing plasma cell creates a hybridoma cell

How hybridoma cells are produced

11.1.U12 Monoclonal antibodies are produced by hybridoma cells

How monoclonal antibodies are produced


11.1.A1 Smallpox was the first infectious disease of humans to have been eradicated by vaccination

Vaccination or Immunization?

Vaccination explained

Eradication of smallpox

Eradication of smallpox

11.1.A2 Monoclonal antibodies to hCG are used in a pregnancy test kits

Explanation of how a pregnancy test strip works

11.1.A3 Antigens on the surface of red blood cells stimulate antibody production in a person with a different blood group

Immune response for bad blood transfusion


8.3.S1 Analysis of epidemiological data related to vaccination programmes

What are the trends in measles cases in the United States from 1990 - 2009?

Place your mouse pointer on the diagram to view trends.

Epidemiology of Measles in United States 1990-2009
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