The kidney and osmoregulation

Topic 11.3

Essential idea: All animals excrete nitrogenous waste products and some animals also balance water and solute concentrations.


11.3.U1 Animals are either osmoregulators or osmoconformers

Graph of osmoregulation and osmoconformer explained

11.3.U2 The Malpighian tubule system in insects and the kidney carry out osmoregulation and removal of nitrogenous wastes

Diagram of how malpighian tubules work

11.3.U3 The composition of blood in the renal artery is different from that in the renal vein

Comparison of renal artery and renal vein composition

11.3.U4 The ultrastructure of the glomerulus and Bowman's capsule facilitate ultrafiltration

Diagram of ultrastructure of glomerulus

11.3.U5 The proximal convoluted tubules selectively reabsorbed useful substances by active transport

Diagram of the function of the proximal tubule

11.3.U6 The loop of Henle maintains hypertonic conditions in the medulla

Diagram of loop of Henle function

11.3.U7 ADH controls reabsorption of water in the collecting duct

Function of the collecting duct diagram

How does ADH control reabsorption of water in the collecting duct?

Role of adh diagram

11.3.U8 The length of the loop of Henle is positively correlated with the need for water conservation in animals

Place your mouse pointer on the view the answer

Loop of Henle graph

11.3.U9 The type of nitrogenous waste in animals is correlated with evolutionary history and habitat

Types of nitrogenous wastes explained


11.3.A1 Consequences of dehydration and overhydration

Dehydration and overhydration consequences

11.3.A2 Treatment of kidney failure by hemodialysis or kidney transplant

The process of hemodialysis

Diagram of how hemodialysis works

Kidney transplant outlined

Kidney transplant explained

11.3.A3 Blood cells, glucose, proteins and drugs are detected in urinary tests

Urine tests explained


11.3.S1 Drawing and labelling of the human kidney

Make sure you are able to draw and label the kidney below.

Place your mouse pointer on the diagram to view labelled structures of the kidney.

Diagram of unlabelled kidney

11.3.S2 Annotations of diagrams of the nephron

Place your mouse pointer on the diagram to view labelled structures of the nephron.

Diagram of unlabelled nephron
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