Carbohydrates and lipids

Topic 2.3

Essential idea: Compounds of carbon, hydrogen and oxygen are used to supply and store energy.

Understandings

Structures of glucose, glycerol and fatty acids

Shown below are the different structures (organic) of key carbohydrate and lipid structures. Can you guess the identity of each structure?

Place your mouse over the chemical structure for identification.

Glucose structure
 Glycerol structure
Fatty acid structure

Examples of monosaccharides, disaccharides and polysaccharides

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2.3.U1 Monosaccharide monomers are linked together by condensation reactions to form disaccharide and polysaccharide polymers

Condensation reactions involve joining together monomers to form larger, more complex macromolecules. This chemical process involves the removal of water molecules. A monomer is a chemical subunit that serves as a building block of a polymer. Outlined below are the condensation reactions of: (i) monosaccharides into disaccharides with the formation of a glycosidic bond and (ii) monosaccharides into polysaccharides through the formation of glycosidic bonds.

Place your mouse over the particular number to see the products of the reaction.

(i)Glucose Condensation
(ii)Glucose Condensation

2.3.U2 Fatty acids can be saturated, monounsaturated or polyunsaturated

Saturated, Mono and Polyunsaturated fatty acid structure

2.3.U3 Unsaturated fatty acids can be cis or trans isomers

Cis Trans fatty acid structure

2.3.U4 Triglycerides are formed by condensation from three fatty acids and one glycerol

Condensation reactions involve joining together monomers to form larger, more complex macromolecules. This chemical process involves the removal of water molecules. A monomer is a chemical subunit that serves as a building block of a polymer. Outlined below are the condensation reaction of fatty acids and glycerol into triglycerides with formation of an ester bond.

Place your mouse over the particular number to see the products of the reaction.

Lipid Condensation

Applications

2.3.A1 Structure and function of cellulose and starch in plants and glycogen in humans

Structure of cellulose and starch in plants and glycogen in humans

Structure of cellulose
Structure of starch
Structure of gylcogen

Function of cellulose and starch in plants and glycogen in humans

Carbohydrate Humans Carbohydrate Plants
glycogen Short-term energy storage (made up of glucose monomers) in the liver and muscles. cellulose Strong fibers that are used to construct plant cell walls.
starch Storage form of glucose (product of photosynthesis).

2.3.A2 Scientific evidence for health risks of trans fats and saturated fatty acids

Cholesterol and saturated fats affect on heart disease

LDLs and HDLs and heart disease

How does consumption of trans fats affect LDL and HDL levels?

Study each graph to determine the effects of trans fats on LDL and HDL levels

Place your mouse on the graph to view explanation of comsumption of trans fats on LDL levels

Effects of trans fats on LDL levels

Place your mouse on the graph to view explanation of comsumption of trans fats on HDL levels

Effects of trans fats on HDL levels

Cholesterol and saturated fats affect on heart disease

Study the graph to determine the effects of saturated fatty acids, LDL and HDL levels on risk of heart disease

Place your mouse on the graph to view explanation of comsumption of trans fats on LDL levels

Effects of different fatty acids on risk of heart disease

2.3.A3 Lipids are more suitable for long-term energy storage in humans than carbohydrates

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Compare the use of carbohydrates and lipids in energy storage

Show comparison of carbohydrates and lipids | Hide comparison of carbohydrates and lipids
Carbohydrate Lipid Comparison

2.3.A4 Evaluation of evidence and the methods used to obtain the evidence for health claims made about lipids

Most research looking at the health claims of diets or nutritional components in a diet are based on observational studies. Outlined below are the differences between observational studies and experimental tests and considerations that need to be taken when making any conclusions regarding observational studies.

Observational studies vs experimental tests

Skills

2.3.S1 Use of moleclular visualization software to compare cellulose, starch and glcogen

View cellulose, starch and glycogen link Visualization software for cellulose, starch and glycogen

2.3.S2 Determination of body mass index by calculation or use of a nomogram

Body mass index by calculation using a nomogram

Calculation of BMI using a nomogram Calculation of BMI

Body mass index by calculation using online calculator

Calculation of BMI Calculation of BMI
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