Defense against infectious disease AHL

Topic 11.1

11.1.1: How does blood clot?

Mechanism of blood clotting

11.1.2: The basis of immunity

The key to immunity is the principle of challenge and response, clonal selection and memory cells outlined in the figure below.

The basis to immunity

11.1.3 & 11.14: Antibody production

Active immunity is immunity due to the production of antibodies by the organism itself after the body's defense mechanisms have been stimulated by antigens. Passive immunity is immunity due to the acquisition of antibodies from another organism in which active community has been stimulated, including via the placenta, colostrum, or by injection of antibodies.

immune response link immune response animation
Production of antibodies

11.1.5: The production of monoclonal antibodies

The production of monoclonal antibodies is a growth area in biotechnology, many potential applications in both the diagnosis and treatment of medical conditions. Detection of human chorionic gonadotrophin (HCG) in pregnancy test kits is one example of the use of monoclonal antibodies in diagnosis while .

monoclonal antibodies link monoclonal antibody animation
Production of monoclonal antibodies
pregnancy test link pregnancy test animation

11.1.6 & 11.1.7: The principle of vaccination

The benefits of vaccination include the total elimination of diseases, prevention of pandemics epidemics, decreased health-care costs and the prevention of harmful side-effects of diseases. The dangers include the possible toxic effects of mercury in vaccines, possible overload of the immune system and possible links with autism.

Production of monoclonal antibodies

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