Hormones, homeostasis and reproduction

Topic 6.6

Essential idea: Hormones are used when signals need to be widely distributed.


6.6.U1 Insulin and glucagon are secreted by beta and alpha cells of the pancreas respectively to control blood glucose                      concentration

Diagram release of glucagon and insulin from pancreas

6.6.U2 Thyroxine is secreted by the thyroid gland to regulate the metabolic rate and help control body temperature

Diagram release of thyroxing from thyrooid

6.6.U3 Leptin is secreted by cells in adipose tissue and acts on the hypothalamus of the brain to inhibit appetite

Diagram release of leptin from adipose tissue

6.6.U4 Melatonin is secreted by the penal gland to control circadian rhythms

Diagram release of melatonin from pineal gland

6.6.U5 A gene on the Y chromosome causes embryonic gonads to develop as testes secrete testosterone

Y chromosome and testosterone

6.6.U6 Testosterone causes pre-natal development of male genitalia and both sperm production and development of male                   secondary sexual characteristics during puberty

Diagram effects of testosterone

6.6.U7 Estrogen and progesterone cause pre-natal development of female reproductive organs and female secondary sexual                   characteristics during puberty

Diagram release of glucagon and insulin from pancreas

6.6.U8 The menstrual cycle is controlled by negative and positive feedback mechanisms involving ovarian and pituitary hormones

Diagram of feedback control during the menstrual cycle


6.6.A1 Causes and treatment of Type I and Type II diabetes

Diabetes is having increased effect on human societies around the world, including personal suffering due to ill health and diabetes directly but also side effects such as kidney failure, eye problems, skin sores and infection. Table 1 distinguishes between type I and type II diabetes.

blood glucose link blood glucose animation
Type I diabetes Type II diabetes
A condition in which the body failures to produce insulin and results in insulin deficiency. Requires the person to inject insulin. A condition in which the body's cells do not properly and results in insulin resistance. Can be controlled by diet and/or medication.

6.6.A2 Testing of leptin on patients with clinical obesity and reasons for the failure to control the disease

Clinical obesity testing and leptin

6.6.A3 Causes of jetlagged and use of melatonin to alleviate it

Using melatonin to alleviate jet lag

6.6.A4 The use IVF drugs to suspend the normal secretion of hormones, followed by the use of artificial doses of hormones to                      induce superovulation and establish a pregnancy

IVF treatment protocol

6.6.A5 William Harvey's investigation of sexual reproduction in deer

Diagram release of glucagon and insulin from pancreas


6.6.S1 Annotate diagrams of the female and male reproductive system to show names of structures and their functions

Place your mouse on the diagram to view the function of each male structure.

Diagram male reproductive parts and functions

Place your mouse on the diagram to view the function of each female structure.

Diagram female reproductive parts and functions
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