Translation

Topic 7.3

Essential idea: Infromation transferred from DNA to mRNA is translated into an amino acid sequence.

Understandings

7.3.U1 Initiation of translation involves assembly of components that carry out the process

Initation process of translation

7.3.U2 Synthesis of polypeptide involves a repeated cycle of events

Elongation process in translation

7.3.U3 Disassembly of components follows termination of translation

Process of termination of translation

7.3.U4 Free ribosomes synthesize proteins for use primarily within the cell

Free ribosomes produce proteins used within cell

7.3.U5 Bound ribosomes synthesize proteins primarily for secretion or for use in lysosomes

Bound ribosomes produce proteins for secretion

7.3.U6 Translation can occur immediately after transcription prokaryotic due to the absence of a nuclear membrane

mRNA movement in eukaryotes and prokaryotes

7.3.U7 The sequence and number of amino acids in the polypeptide is the primary structure

Description of primary protein structure

7.3.U8 The secondary structure is the formation of alpha helices and beta pleated sheets stabilized by hydrogen bonding

Description of secondary protein structure

7.3.U9 The tertiary structure is the further folding of a polypeptide stabilized by the interaction between R groups

Description of tertiary protein structure

Types of bonds found in the tertiary structure of proteins

Description of tertiary bonding

7.3.U10 The quaternary structure exists in proteins with more than one polypeptide chain

Description of quaternary protein structure

Applications

7.3.A1 tRNA-activating enzymes illustrate enzyme-substrate specificity and the role of phosphorylation

Description of tRNA charging

Skills

7.3.S1 Identification of pollysome in micrographs of prokaryotes and eukaryotes

Structure of a polysome

Label parts of the electron micrograph below.

Place your mouse on the diagram to view the labelled diagram

Trophic levels in a food web

7.3.S2 The use of molecular visualization software to analyze the structure of eukaryotic ribosomes and a tRNA molecule

Goto Visualization software website for ribosome
Goto Visualization software website for tRNA
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