Innate and learned behaviour

Option A4

Essential idea: Behavioural patterns can be inherited or learned.


A.4.U1 Innate behaviour is inherited from parents and so develops independently of the environment

An explanation of innate behaviour

A.4.U2 Autonomic and involuntary responses are referred to as reflexes

Comparing involuntary and voluntary actions

A.4.U3 Reflex arcs comprise the neurons that mediate reflexes

Different wavelengths effect the rods and cones

A.4.U4 Reflex conditioning involves forming new associations

Reflexes and new associations

A.4.U5 Learned behavior develops as a result of experience

Explanation of learned behaviour

A.4.U6 Imprinting is learning occurring at a particular lifestage and is independent of the consequence of behavior

Imprinting explained

A.4.U7 Operant conditioning is a form of learning that consists of trial and error experiences

Types of operant conditioning

A.4.U8 Learning is the acquisition of skill or knowledge

Definition of learning

A.4.U9 Memory is the process of encoding, storing and accessing information

How are memories formed


A.4.A1 Withdrawal reflex of the hand from a painful stimulus

Withdrawal reflex arc

A.4.A2 Pavlov's experiments into reflex conditioning in dogs

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Pavlov's experiment on conditioning in dogs

Use the figure above to outline Pavlov's experiment into conditioning of dogs.

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Outline of Pavlov's experiment

A.4.A4 The role of inheritance and learning in the development of birdsong

How young birds learn to sing


A.4.S1 Analysis of data from invertebrate behavior experiments in terms of the effect of chances of survival and reproduction

animalbehaviour link Animal behaviour experiments
guidelines link Animal behaviour experiments

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Design a Method link Design a Method web page
Collection and Processing link Collection of data web page
Conclusion link Conclusions web page

A.4.S2 Drawing and labeling a diagram of a reflex arc for a painful withdrawal reflex

Place your mouse on the figure to view the reflex arc parts labelled.

Parts of the reflex arc
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