The heart

Option D4

Essential idea: Internal and external factors influence heart function.

Understandings

D.4.U1 Structure of cardiac muscle cells allows propagation of stimuli through the heart wall

Myocardial cell structure and location
Myocardial cell structure explained

D.4.U2 Signals from the Sino atrial node that cause contraction cannot pass directly from atria to ventricles

Non-conductive layer between atria and ventricles

D.4.U3 There is a delay between the arrival and passing on of the stimulus at the atrioventricular node

Delay at AV node explained

D.4.U4 This delay allows for atrial systole before the atrioventricular valves close

Atrial systole and the AV node

D.4.U5 Conducting fibers ensure coordinated contraction of the entire ventricle wall

Role of conducting fibers

D.4.U6 Normal heart sounds are caused by the atrioventricular valves and semilunar valves closing causing changes in blood flow

Normal heart sounds

Applications

D.4.A1 Use of artificial pacemakers to regulate the heart rate

Use of artificial pacemakers

D.4.A2 Use of defibrillation to treat life-threatening cardiac conditions

How to use a defibrillator

D.4.A3 Causes and consequences of hypertension and thrombosis

Hypertension

Causes of Hypertension
Consequences of hypertension

Thrombosis

Cause and Consequences of thrombosis

Skills

D.4.S1 Measurement and interpretation of the heart rate under different conditions

Measurement of heart rate

Measurement of heart rate using an ECG

Interpretation of heart rate

Use the ECGs below to measure heart rate, identify type of rhythm and name the condition

Place your mouse pointer on ECG to view interpretation

Measuring heart rate and rhythm
Measuring heart rate and rhythm
Measuring heart rate and rhythm

D.4.S2 Interpretation of systolic and diastolic blood pressure measurements

Blood pressurements and recommendations

D.4.S3 Mapping of the cardiac cycle to a normal ECG trace

Mapping of cardiac cycle with ecg

D.4.S3 Analysis of epidemiological data relating to the incidence of coronary heart disease

Relationship between CHD Prevalence, age and ethnicity

CHD Prevalence in males and females in the UK

Use graph above to make conclusions regarding CHD Prevalence regarding age and ethnicity

Show conclusions for CHD Prevalence | Hide explanation for CHD Prevalence
CHD Prevalence conclusions from graph

CHD Mortality in different European Countries

CHD Mortality in different European Countries

Use graph above to make conclusions regarding CHD Mortality in different European Countries

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CHD Mortality conclusions for graph

Relationship between CHD Conventional Factors and Age of CHD disease

CHD and Conventional Factors

Use graph above to make conclusions regarding CHD Conventional Factors and Age of Entry into Clinical Trial

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CHD Conventional Factors and Age conclusions from graph
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